英语笔记(一)

谓语动词分类

  1. 实意动词

    • vt: 及物动词

    • vi: 不及物动词

  2. 系动词

    • Be动词: am, is, are, was, were

    • 感官动词:see, watch, smell, hear, touch, feel

    • 表示变化的半系动词: become, turn, go(变得)

  3. 情态动词

    1. vt: 及物动词

    2. vi: 不及物动词

  4. 助动词: do, have

    构成句子必须要有动词

基本句型

基本术语

  • Subject 名词(n): 主语

  • Verb: 谓语动词

  • Object: 宾语

  • Complement: 表语或补语

句型

  1. S+V 主谓(动词为不及物动词)

  2. S+V+O 主谓宾(动词为及物动词)

  3. S+V+Oo 主谓双宾语

    • 一般双宾语句式

    • grant sb (间接宾语) sth (直接宾语) = grant sth to sb

    • 类似的动词还有: give,lend, send, pass, buy, oward

    • 有一个特殊的词: buy sb sth = buy sth for sb

  4. S+V+O+C 主谓宾+标语

    • The story made me excited

    • He nominatedme morritor

  5. S+V+C 主系表

    • I am happy

    • His oral English was fluent

  6. S+V+C 主语补足语

修饰成分的含义

  • 定语: 修饰…的句子

  • 状语: 表示地点、时间的句子

  • 同位语: 解释说明的句子

胜任某事常见的英文说法

  • be competent for sth

  • be qualified for sth

  • be competent to do sth

  • be qualified to do sth

  • 扩大视野: expand my vision

  • 我认为: maintain/assert/hold

主谓一致

  • 基本原则

    单对单, 多对多

  • 特例

    • 不可数名词和抽象名词一律用单数

    • 集合名词具体问题具体分析

    • people, police永远是复数

    • Equipment, experience,knownledge, information, money都用单数

      注: experience当作经历时是复数

    • 时间、距离、钱一律做整体看视作单数

    • doing,to do从句做主语看作单数

经典被动语态

  • It is said that…

  • It is reported that…

  • It is believed that…

  • It is hoped that…

  • It is well known that…

  • It is thought that…

  • It is sugguested that…

  • It must be remembered that…

介词词语经典组合

  • need doing = need to be done

  • require doing = require to be done

  • want doing = want to be done

  • be worth doing

情态动词常考形式

  • couldn’t have done: 对过去事情100%的否定推测

  • could have done: 本有能力做某事却没做成,表示遗憾或者惋惜

  • should have done: 本该做却没做

  • shouldn’t have done: 本不该做却做了

  • needn’t have done: 本不需要做却做了

  • must have done: 对过去事情100%的肯定推测

  • might have done: 对过去事情的推测 (60%~)

  • would have done:

表示A和B不同的句式

  • There is a stark disparity between A and B

  • There is an obvious diffrence between A and B

英语中常见语气

  • 直接陈述

  • 启始语气

  • 虚拟语气

虚拟语气

  if从句 主语
现在时 did | have would | could | might | should + do
过去时 had done would | could | might | should + have done
将来时 did | should + do 或者 were to do would | could | might | should + do
  1. 虚拟语气的重要句型

    1. 表示某时应该或者必须去做

          suggest, order, demand, propose, command, request, desire,insist等动词后的宾语从句

      • 主语+suggest(建议、命令和要求) + that从句(should do)

        ask, advice, agree 同意, arrange 安排, beg 请求, command 命令,

        decide, demand 要求, desire 期待, determine, direct, instruct 指示,

        intend 打算, maintain 坚持主张, move 动议, order, persuade 说服, pray,

        stipulate 规定,约定, tell, propose 建议, urge 敦促, request, require,

        recommend推荐, insist 坚持要求

      • 在sugguesion,motion,proposal, order, recommendations,plan, idea等后面引出的表语从句和同位语从句中

      • It is + 形容词 + that 从句(should do)

        • 命令要求建议类: desired, sugguestedm requested, ordered, proposed, imperative命令的,advisable 建议的,preferable更可取的,urgent紧急的

        • 重要基本类: necessary, important, vital 至关重要的, essential基本的

        • 荒谬愚蠢可笑类: absurd 荒谬的 | rediculous 荒谬的 | silly 愚蠢的 | foolish | stupid

        • 其他类: natural自然的,unusual,odd古怪的,incredible 难以置信的,strange, wired

      • It’s (high) time + 从句 (sb did)

      • 主语 + would rather (would sooner | would as soon | would prefer) + that 从句 (sb did)多用于表示现在和将来的情况,表示过去的愿望用wish

    2. 表示假设

      • wish

        • I wish he was/were comming with us

        • I wish i had been to the concert last night

      • If only 要是…就好了

        • If only he knew our telephone number.
      • as if | as though

        • He looks as if he had done his homework / he speaks as if he were/was a teacher
    3. 在lest,for fear that (以免, 唯恐,以防)等词引导的从句中,谓语动词用should+do(should 可以省略)

  2. 难点

    • 混合模拟

      实态: if过去式 + 现在式根据各自短语的时态确定

    • 含蓄条件句

      有时假设的情况并不以条件从句表示出来,而是暗含在上下文中,比如通过介词短语来表示。这些介词常是: but for (but that + 从句), without, otherwise等。

      • but for 翻译成 ` 要不是…`
    • If的省略句

      倒桩,一般将if省略,把谓语动词提前

      • Were he to tell us everthing, we could try to solve his problem.

help相关的短语

  • help sb do sth

  • help sb to do sth

  • help sb with sth

see相关短语

  • see sb do sth

  • see sb doing sth

    两者的区别在于see sb do sth强调的是看到了事情发生的整个过程,强调从开始到结束, 而see sb doing sth强调的是看到了事情发生的过程中的一个片段,强调在某一刻具体发生的事情

非谓语动词

充当主干成分

  • 非谓语动词作主语

  • 不定式的逻辑主语 (for/of + 代词/名词)

    • 句型: It is + adj + to do sth

    • 强调人的本性时用of,除此之外一般都用for,但是typical这个词比较特殊,与of连用

  • 非谓语动词作宾语

    • 后面只能接动名词作宾语的常用动词

      • 喜欢考虑与避免: enjoy, consider, avoid

      • 停止放弃太危险: stop, quit, risk

      • 承认理解很值得: admit, understand, be worth

      • 幻想想象莫推延: fancy, imagine, delay, postpone

      • 要求完成时期望: require, finish, look forward to

      • 建议继续勤操练: suggest, keep on, practice

      • 不禁原谅是坚持: can't help, execuse, insist on

      • 继续成功不弃嫌: go on, succeed in, mind, deny

      • 带to的词组,to为介词: look forward to doing, contribute to doing, pay attention to doing, the key to doing

    • 下列特殊句型中要用动名词的形式

      • It is no use (no good, no point, no sense, a waste of time等名词) + (in) doing sth

      • There is no point (use, sense, good等名词) + (in) doing sth

      • Have difficulty (trouble, problem, pleasure, a difficult time) + (in) doing sth

        注: take the trouble to do sth, have no time to do sth后接不定式

    • 后接不定式作宾语的常用动词(往往表示请求、要求、选择、决定、打算、企图等)

      afford, agree, ask, attempt, beg, bother, care

      choose, claim, consent, decide, demand, desire

      expect, fail, fear, hesitate, intend, plan

      manage, learn, pretend, offer, pledge, vow

      prepare, refuse, resolve, determine, threaten

      undertake, volunteer, wish, hope

    • 有些动词后既可以接doing也可以接to do,但是有区别

      • regret to do/doing

        • I regret to tell you that you failed the exam. (很遗憾,通知你考试没通过)

        • I regret having said that rude word to hime. (我非常后悔对他说那些粗鲁的话)

      • stop

        • He stopped writing and had a talk with me. (他停下写字开始跟我聊天)

        • He stopped (walking) to have a talk with me. (他停下正在作的事情开始跟我聊天)

      • go on to do/doing

      • continue to do/doing

      • mean

        • His nodding means agreeing (意味着…)

        • He meant to do that work by himself (他打算自己做那件事情)

      • try

        • We try to finish the task on time (努力做…)

        • She tried making a dress by herself, but she failed. (尝试做…)

      • prefer

        • Prefer doing sth to doing sth

        • Prefer to do sth than to do sth

      • like

        I like watching TV every night, but i don’t like to watch TV this evening because i am busy.

      • need/require/deserve后加动名词表被动

        • need doing = need to be done

        • require doing = require to be done

        • want doing = want to be done

        • be worth doing

      • 动名词前有时候可有一个物主代词或名词所有格来表示它们的逻辑主语

        • Thank for your attending my party

        • I really appreciate your keeping it a secret

    • 做修饰语的成分

      • 做定语

      • 做状语

        • 时间状语: Turning around, she saw Tom in tears

        • 原因状语: Being ill, he couldn’t go to class

        • 让步状语: 由although/though, even if/though引入放句首

          • Even if comming by the subway, you’ll need 45 minutes to get there.
        • 条件状语

          • Unless asked to answer questions, the pupils were not supposed to talk in Mrs Smith’s class
        • 伴随状语

          • He sat in an armchair, watching TV